al., “UN Partisan Warfare in Korea, 1951-1954,” Operations Research Office, Johns Hopkins University (1956), 32, 155, hereafter “UN Partisan Warfare in Korea.”. Bok recalled that Coccumelli’s heart attack occurred as he and others were trying to extract a KIRKLAND team from the mainland. Over 100,000 Portuguese translations of English words and phrases. . See also Richard L. Kiper, “Unconventional Warfare in Korea: Forgotten Aspect of the ‘Forgotten War,’” Special Warfare 16 (August 2003), 31, hereafter “Unconventional Warfare in Korea”; ADTIC Publication G-102, Terrain and Climates of Korea and Adjacent Lands (Maxwell Air Force Base: Research Studies Institute, 1952), 1-12, cited in Guerrilla Warfare and Airpower in Korea, 1; Letter by Pak ‘Bok’ Chang Oun, KIRKLAND interpreter, to unknown recipient, 12 July 1985, copy in USASOC History Office Classified Files, Fort Bragg, NC, 4-6, hereafter Bok letter with page number. Fundamentals of Guerrilla Warfare. This type of warfare is typified by sabotage, ambushes, and surprise raids on unsuspecting military targets. September 1953), Box “Interrogation Reports of Personnel Returned to Military Control in ‘Operation Little Switch,’” Series “Records of the Casualty Division, AG, General Secretary,” Record Group (RG) 338, National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), College Park, MD, 4, hereafter Naylor-Foote narrative with page number; Ulatoski interview, 7 March 2011. 108,” 4 September 1952, Folder “Guerrilla Summary, CCRAK, 8240 AU, 1952, #93-151,” Box 31, Entry 95C, RG 349, NARA. Harrison earlier earned the Silver Star for having supported a “guerrilla type battalion” with an amphibious landing near Changsa-dong “behind enemy lines” on 14 September 1950. This counteroffensive compelled UN forces to withdraw south from P’yongyang and Seoul, and the X Corps, since reassigned to northeast Korea, to evacuate through the East Coast North Korean port at Hungnam. Eric A. Patterson, “Unconventional Assisted Recovery (UAR): Historical Case Study Analysis and Quantitative Feasibility Assessment” (master’s thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, 2001), 36, 38-39. “UN Partisan Forces in the Korean Conflict,” 30. “UN Partisan Warfare in Korea,” 76-77; “Unconventional Warfare in Korea,” 31; Mark Clark, From the Danube to the Yalu (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1954), 212; Guerrilla Warfare and Airpower in Korea, 102-103. This character of PKK is sufficient for defining them as a terrorist organisation. Garraty, John Arthur The American Nation: A History of the United States to 1877 (1995) More properly, modern revolutionary guerrilla warfare might be better termed insurgency. In contrast to statements by Ettinger and Naylor-Foote, Ulatoski recalled that BIG BOY. The main strategy and tactics of guerrilla warfare tend to involve the use of a small attacking, mobile force against a large, unwieldy force. Guerrilla warfare - Guerrilla warfare - Origins of modern guerrilla warfare: Guerrilla warfare in time became a useful adjunct to larger political and military strategies—a role in which it complemented orthodox military operations both inside enemy territory and in areas seized and occupied by an enemy. 1LT Ulatoski remembered that many of “the enlisted men [who served in KIRKLAND] were . It was virtually impossible to move one quietly.” Letter from BG (Ret.) . This was guerrilla warfare, with all its horror and treachery. Ulatoski had also served as assistant S-3 in Company B, 8th Infantry Regiment, under then-regimental commander LTC John H. McGee, before the war. Guerrilla definition, a member of a band of irregular soldiers that uses guerrilla warfare, harassing the enemy by surprise raids, sabotaging communication and supply lines, etc. By September 1952, the number of American personnel assigned to KIRKLAND had increased markedly since April 1951, but it was still low given its mission and number of guerrillas. This game starts with a leader having minimum assets and making very little money. Ulatoski recalled a laundry bag filled with supplies and perhaps an SCR 300 radio. Radio communication was established with the landing party at 0400 hours on 3 June. First, there were fewer islands to operate from and fewer anti-Communist guerrillas. In many cases, peasants form the backbone of movements led by non-peasant elites. The total number of Americans in KIRKLAND at any one time peaked at around thirty-five in 1953. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1965. CCRAK, 8240th Army Unit, “CCRAK Guerrilla Summary, No. 154,” 20 October 1952, Folder “Guerrilla Summary, 1952,” Box 31, Entry 95C, RG 349, NARA; CCRAK, 8242nd Army Unit, “CCRAK Guerrilla Summary, No. Initially “an advisor,” he assumed command of the unit and led its counterattacks until additional landing craft arrived. Ulatoski recalled a laundry bag filled with supplies and perhaps an SCR 300 radio. By 1955, the Command and General Staff College and the Infantry School at Fort Benning cut their instruction in guerrilla and counter-guerrilla warfare in half.10 The Army spent the rest of the 1950’s focusing on nuclear warfare … Freeman Guerrilla Warfare Gameplay. Terrorist groups with inadequate funds and human sources started to seek support from the people. The guerrilla force is largely or entirely organized in small units that are dependent on the support of the local population. Some Basic Tactics and Strategies of Urban Guerrilla Warfare. 5 Annex to letter from BG (Ret.) Guerrilla definition: A guerrilla is someone who fights as part of an unofficial army, usually against an... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples . The broad strategy underlying successful guerrilla warfare is that of protracted harassment accomplished by extremely subtle, flexible tactics designed to wear down the enemy. However, large-scale guerrilla warfare on multiple fronts and protracted long-term resistance have all proven to be effective at combating even the most potent forces in the modern age. . For Americans, the concept isn’t new. Initially “an advisor,” he assumed command of the unit and led its counterattacks until additional landing craft arrived. Italian Translation of “guerrilla warfare” | The official Collins English-Italian Dictionary online. Mobility is key, and hit and run tactics and sabotage are the methods with which to maximize results. Bok recalled that Coccumelli’s heart attack occurred as he and others were trying to extract a KIRKLAND team from the mainland. The ROK Army distrusted the North Koreans and so did not invest much time, resources, and manpower on them. The five stages of urban guerrilla warfare: challenge of the 1970's by Brian Michael Jenkins, 1971, Rand Corp. edition, in English Bok’s recounting of the first raid/firefight on the mainland contained no dates or locations and was vague about the number of personnel involved, thus precluding an accurate, definitive description of the event. It was virtually impossible to move one quietly.” Letter from BG (Ret.) The contents on board the helicopter formed the basis for a divergence of opinion among the participants over whether the helicopter crashed due to excess weight, or whether it resulted from another factor (e.g., enemy fire, mechanical malfunction, pilot error). [It] was a treeless and grass-covered trapezoidal shaped piece of granite about 400-500 yards long, about 300 yards wide at the center, and about 100 plus yards high at its central point.”5 KIRKLAND interpreter Pak Chang Oun (known also as Bok) called it a rocky, desolate “No-Man’s Island.” The KIRKLAND area of responsibility on the mainland spanned the mountainous region along the coastline south of Wonsan. See Bok letter, 9-11. 7 COL John H. McGee to 1LT William S. Harrison, 14 May 1951, and McGee to Harrison, 28 May 1951, both in Folder “KIRKLAND,” 8240th AU Files, cited in “UN Partisan Warfare in Korea,” 32; “Unconventional Warfare in Korea,” 31. http://www.dtic.mil/dpmo/korea/reports/air/korwald_info_2380.htm. This resulted in a marked disparity in the resourcing of the West versus the East Coast guerrilla units. Many of these topics have been broken down into more specific issues in other pieces on our site. Ulatoski interview, 7 March 2011. Officer’s, Warrant Officer’s, and Flight Officer’s Qualification Record for Malcolm C. Ward, no date (last reviewed and signed by Ward on 6 March 1951), NPRC. Frederick W. Cleaver, et. Bok’s recounting of the first raid/firefight on the mainland contained no dates or locations and was vague about the number of personnel involved, thus precluding an accurate, definitive description of the event. His training in the British and Indian militaries included the Air Landing School in July 1942, the Battalion Infantry Officer Course in April-May 1943, a Special Demolitions Course in May-June 1943, and the Intelligence Staff Course in November-December 1944. Guerrilla forces must win over the populace while … However, the situation there differed greatly from the West Coast. MEETING THE CHALLENGE OF INSURGENCY WARFARE. did not have any sort of real leadership and only [had] a hodgepodge of equipment.” Coccumelli and Ulatoski had both been “under the impression that there was a battalion, a considerable force of organized partisans on Nan-do.”. Sergeant First Class (SFC) Robert P. Sarama, a former EUSA Ranger, served as the First Sergeant of TF KIRKLAND. Field, Jr., History of United States Naval Operations: Korea (Washington, DC: GPO, 1962), also available online at http://www.history.navy.mil/books/field/index.htm (accessed 21 November 2011). Although the term "guerilla warfare" was coined in the context of the Peninsular War in the 19th century, the tactical … Guerrilla warfare is typically an integral part of that longer, protracted struggle. Over 100,000 Spanish translations of English words and phrases. Guerrilla warfare has been employed throughout history on innumerable occasions and in different circumstances to obtain different objectives. Ulatoski letter; LTC Koster to 1LT Harrison, 5 July 1951, Folder “8086 Memos,” 8240th AU Files, cited in “UN Partisan Warfare in Korea,” 34; Naylor-Foote narrative, 9; Kenneth Finlayson, “Wolfpacks and Donkeys: Special Forces Soldiers in the Korean War,” Veritas: Journal of Army Special Operations History, Vol. The Five Stages of Urban Guerrilla Warfare : Challenge of the 1970s. His foreign awards included the Military Cross, Burma Star, Atlantic Star, the British Defense Ribbon, and the Chinese Order of the Flying Cloud. In September, X Corps opened a second front at Inch’on, allowing the combined UN forces to push the NKPA from the ROK and advance northward to the Sino-Korean border. 1LT Harrison wanted to establish without question that the unit was under American control, that he would not share command, and that only motivated Koreans could serve in the unit.1. There should be enough here to keep you learning for a long time. There were South Korean intelligence elements on Nan-do that coordinated with KIRKLAND during the latter’s operational lull in early 1952. Ettinger, Thorin, and Naylor-Foote each later alluded to the helicopter having carried such items as ammunition crates, walkie-talkies, a pack radio, and/or other supplies. The nature/amount of contents on the helicopter remains unknown. . The contents on board the helicopter formed the basis for a divergence of opinion among the participants over whether the helicopter crashed due to excess weight, or whether it resulted from another factor (e.g., enemy fire, mechanical malfunction, pilot error). In many cases, guerrilla combatants are fighting to overthrow or weaken a ruling government or regime. Enlisted Record and Report of Separation for Cyril A. Tritz, no date (ca. According to one TF KIRKLAND commander, then-1LT Joseph Ulatoski, the unit never had “an office of records,” thus leaving few documents from which to reconstruct its operational history. the drivers behind this rise in urban violence and warfare, assesses the complex challenges military forces face in cities, and analyzes the key demographic, technological, and political developments that have shaped military operations in cities in the 21st century, and will likely characterize future urban conflicts. . did not have any sort of real leadership and only [had] a hodgepodge of equipment.” Coccumelli and Ulatoski had both been “under the impression that there was a battalion, a considerable force of organized partisans on Nan-do.”. Colonel (COL) John H. McGee, head of the EUSA’s guerrilla command, needed a reliable commander for TF KIRKLAND and chose 1LT William S. Harrison.7 Harrison’s military career began on 15 September 1943 in the Corps of Engineers. ". http://www.history.navy.mil/books/field/index.htm. A large number of them had fled to off-shore islands along the West Coast. Read this book using Google Play Books app on your PC, android, iOS devices. Quintus Fabius Maximus Verruco… In 1952, the unit averaged only four U.S. officers and six enlisted soldiers. 12 According to Ulatoski, when MAJ Coccumelli assumed command of KIRKLAND at Nan-do, he discovered “a group of 40-50 heterogeneous North Koreans who had been very loosely organized into what was called a partisan unit, but . Guerrilla warfare has been the bane of empires since the beginning of recorded history. In June 1950, the North Korean People’s Army (NKPA) invaded the Republic of Korea (ROK), and nearly achieved a complete takeover of the South. September 1953), Box “Interrogation Reports of Personnel Returned to Military Control in ‘Operation Little Switch,’” Series “Records of the Casualty Division, AG, General Secretary,” Record Group (RG) 338, National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), College Park, MD, 4, hereafter Naylor-Foote narrative with page number; Ulatoski interview, 7 March 2011. We will also put a list of military and private defense sources at the end of this article. Ettinger interview, 17 November 2011; Naylor-Foote narrative, 35-38; Annex #2 to letter from BG (Ret.) It contains 16 chapters, each detailing all of the important and essential elements of guerilla warfare. Annex to letter from BG (Ret.) First, there were fewer islands to operate from and fewer anti-Communist guerrillas. Legion of Merit Citation (LOM) for William S. Harrison, no date, HFPC, hereafter Harrison LOM Citation. On the contrary, if the leadership meeting is called and if it is free and fair, Lawrence is going to beat any PNC big-wig that challenges her including Granger and Harmon. Bok recalled that from Nan-do, “[W]e could see that rugged long-stretched mountain range very clearly, even some native houses along the coast.”6. Guerrilla warfare requires reliable small units that can fire and maneuver to retain the tactical offensive against much stronger foes. Joseph Ulatoski to USASOC History Office, 18 April 2012, USASOC History Office Classified Files, Fort Bragg, NC, hereafter Ulatoski letter. For Call of Duty: Black Ops II on the Xbox 360, a GameFAQs Q&A question titled "Guerrilla Warfare Challenge Question? There, McGee proposed a plan to insert 205 guerrillas with seven tons of equipment on the southern beaches of Kojo Bay to gather intelligence and raid enemy garrisons in the area. The main strategy and tactics of guerrilla warfare tend to involve the use of a small attacking, mobile force against a large, unwieldy force. But, in a marketing sense, it’s really about using the element … Guerrilla definition is - a person who engages in irregular warfare especially as a member of an independent unit carrying out harassment and sabotage. Joseph Ulatoski to USASOC History Office, 18 April 2012, copy in USASOC History Office Classified Files, Fort Bragg, NC, hereafter Ulatoski letter, annex #1. “UN Partisan Warfare in Korea,” 35. Silver Star Citation for William S. Harrison, 12 September 1978 (for actions on 14 September 1950), HFPC. Over 100,000 Portuguese translations of English words and phrases. [Brian Michael Jenkins;] -- En kort skildring af guerilla bevægelsens udvikling fra Mao Tse-tung, vo Nguyen Gìap, Fidel Castro og Che Guevaras foretrukne arbejdsområde; … did not have any sort of real leadership and only [had] a hodgepodge of equipment.” Coccumelli and Ulatoski had both been “under the impression that there was a battalion, a considerable force of organized partisans on Nan-do.” Ulatoski letter, annex #1. Military History Detachment (MHD)-3, 8086th Army Unit (AU), “UN Partisan Forces in the Korean Conflict, 1951-1952—A Study of their Characteristics and Operations,” Center of Military History, Fort McNair, Washington, DC (1954), 1-3, hereafter “UN Partisan Forces in the Korean Conflict;" Billy Mossman, Ebb and Flow: November 1950-July 1951 (Washington, DC: GPO, 1990), 229-230; Lieutenant Colonel Lawrence V. Schuetta, Guerrilla Warfare and Airpower in Korea, 1950-53 (Maxwell Air Force Base: Air University, 1964), 5, 63-64, 69-72, hereafter Guerrilla Warfare and Airpower in Korea; Daniel Politella, Operation Grasshopper: The Story of Army Aviation in Korea from Aggression to Armistice (Tyler, TX: Robert R. Longo Company, 1958), 2-5, cited in Guerrilla Warfare and Airpower in Korea, 63; Eighth U.S. Army, Korea, “Organization and Plan for Partisan Operations in Korea,” January 1951, cited in Guerrilla Warfare and Airpower in Korea, 71. However, guerrilla warfare in and of itself is merely a method which may be pursued by insurgents or state actors as a part of more traditional warfare. 17 Ulatoski described sampans as “basically rowboats with a maximum calm water capacity of about five people. For this action, CPL Tritz earned the Silver Star and 1LT Ulatoski earned the Bronze Star with ‘V’ device. Harrison completed an International Relations degree from Harvard and returned to active duty in November 1948.8 He served in the U.S. Military Advisory Group to the ROK before joining the Miscellaneous Division, G-3, EUSA, on 3 February 1951 with assignment to LEOPARD BASE and then as the first commander of KIRKLAND.9. AMARAVATI: Chief Minister YS Jagan Mohan Reddy on Monday, virtually inaugurated the first Police Duty Meet which is being held after six years at Tirupati. The PKK has carried out acts inconsistent with the guerrilla warfare techniques such as killing, kidnapping and bombing civilians, thus violating the whole law of war. Guerrilla warfare starts with two people -- a brave change agent and an enlightened manager. Led by the U.S. military, United Nations (UN) forces intervened and held the perimeter at Pusan. Guerrilla Warfare and Airpower in Korea, 15; “UN Partisan Warfare in Korea,” 155; “Unconventional Warfare in Korea,” 31. According to Ulatoski, when MAJ Coccumelli assumed command of KIRKLAND at Nan-do, he discovered “a group of 40-50 heterogeneous North Koreans who had been very loosely organized into what was called a partisan unit, but . The guerrilla force is largely or entirely organized in small units that are dependent on the support of the local population. Freeman: Guerrilla Warfare > General Discussions > Topic Details. Ulatoski interview, 7 March 2011; “UN Partisan Warfare in Korea,” 155; Bok letter, 31. Captain Harry E. Ettinger, U.S. Navy, interview by Jared M. Tracy, 17 November 2011, USASOC History Office Classified Files, Fort Bragg, NC; “VC-35/VA (AW)-35 Prisoners of War,” http://www.vc-35andvaaw-35.org/pow/htm (accessed 14 December 2011); Defense Prisoner of War and Missing Personnel Office (DPMO), Korean War Aircraft Loss Database (KORWALD) Loss Incident Summary for Harry E. Ettinger, Jr., http://www.dtic.mil/dpmo/korea/reports/air/korwald_info_2380.htm (accessed 1 February 2012). An Intriguing and Important Book The Art of Guerrilla Warfare: 3rd Edition, by J.J. Tucker, is a fascinating book about military strategy and how to win wars against authoritarian regimes. LCDR Archie C. Kuntze, Commander, USS Begor (APD-127), “Action Report—Landing of Eighth Army Guerrilla Personnel during Period 2 June-5 June 1951,” 13 June 1951, 1, copy in USASOC History Office Classified Files, Fort Bragg, NC, hereafter Kuntze, “Action Report.”. An Age of Asymmetric Challenges—4th Generation Warfare at Sea. . On Guerrilla Warfare - Ebook written by Mao Tse-tung. To a degree, the urbanization of guerrilla warfare signals its failure in the countryside. Purchase Purchase Print Copy Format … See the challenges that our military faces in Iraq, as they try to fight an unconventional war Do Now 1 Nam Pyo Lee, email to James Harrison, Sr., 27 December 1999, Harrison Family Personal Collection (HFPC). The guerrilla warfare there between Unionists and secessionists remained bitter throughout the war. February 1946), HFPC; DD 214, Certificate of Release or Discharge from Active Duty for William S. Harrison, no date, HFPC. This was as true in ancient, medieval, and colonial times as it is today. Thus, the plan devolved to occupying the small island of Song-do (also called Sol-som), “using force if necessary, and all personnel and equipment [would be] landed there.” Song-do was a tear-drop shaped, steep sided, tree-covered island approximately nine hundred meters long, three hundred meters wide, and nine hundred meters from the mainland. The challenges of urban warfare are numerous. Title Slide of The five stages of urban guerrilla warfare challenge of the 1970s - Volume 25 Issue 2 Separation Qualification Record for Albert W.C. Naylor-Foote, 27 September 1946, NPRC; Officer’s and Warrant Officer’s Qualification Card Copy for Albert W.C. Naylor-Foote, 10 January 1946, NPRC; Officer’s, Warrant Officer’s, and Flight Officer’s Qualification Record for Albert W.C. Naylor-Foote, no date, NPRC; Chronological Record of Military Service for Albert W.C. Naylor-Foote, no date, NPRC. It is a short read that is worth everybody’s time. Engaging in guerrilla warfare to protect your neighborhood will often be counterproductive as it will likely ensure a more extensive response. WD AGO 53-98, Military Record and Report of Separation Certificate of Service for William S. Harrison, no date (ca. KIRKLAND Rear operated in Chumunjin, seven miles south of the 38th Parallel, on the coast in the Kangwŏn-do region in northeastern South Korea. He learned engineering at Fort Belvoir, Virginia, and airborne training at Fort Benning, Georgia. This article describes the personnel, organization, and missions of TF KIRKLAND from April 1951 to July 1953, and the factors that impacted its effectiveness.2 Eighth U.S. Army’s (EUSA) decision to establish organizations to direct operational guerrilla units such as TF KIRKLAND emerged from the conventional situation in Korea. Bok letter, 20-25; Ulatoski letter, annex #1. This game starts with a leader having minimum assets and making very little money. An LCPR took 1LT Harrison and the remaining UDT personnel off Song-do the next day. 8240th Army Unit, Guerrilla Division, “Report of Guerrilla Operations, 22-30 September 1952,” 24, copy in USASOC History Office Classified Files, Fort Bragg, NC. See more. A.P. 324 pp. CCRAK, 8240th Army Unit, “CCRAK Guerrilla Summary, No. For Rear Admiral George C. Dyer’s (Commander, Task Force 95) comments about LCDR Kuntze’s “Action Report,” see Dyer,” First Endorsement on CO, USS Begor (APD-127) sec let A16-13 ser 005 of 13 June 1951 [Action Report—Landing of Eighth Army Guerrilla Personnel during Period 2-5 June 1951],” 3 July 1951, copy in USASOC History Office Classified Files, Fort Bragg, NC. 146,” 12 October 1952, Folder “Guerrilla Summary, CCRAK, 8240 AU, 1952, #93-151,” Box 31, Entry 95C, RG 349, NARA; CCRAK, 8242nd Army Unit, “CCRAK Guerrilla Summary, No. He said that there is a need to tackle the Political Guerrilla Warfare taking place in the State in the form of vandalising idols and advised the police officials to include this in the Ignite programme. 3 Military History Detachment (MHD)-3, 8086th Army Unit (AU), “UN Partisan Forces in the Korean Conflict, 1951-1952—A Study of their Characteristics and Operations,” Center of Military History, Fort McNair, Washington, DC (1954), 1-3, hereafter “UN Partisan Forces in the Korean Conflict;" Billy Mossman, Ebb and Flow: November 1950-July 1951 (Washington, DC: GPO, 1990), 229-230; Lieutenant Colonel Lawrence V. Schuetta, Guerrilla Warfare and Airpower in Korea, 1950-53 (Maxwell Air Force Base: Air University, 1964), 5, 63-64, 69-72, hereafter Guerrilla Warfare and Airpower in Korea; Daniel Politella, Operation Grasshopper: The Story of Army Aviation in Korea from Aggression to Armistice (Tyler, TX: Robert R. Longo Company, 1958), 2-5, cited in Guerrilla Warfare and Airpower in Korea, 63; Eighth U.S. Army, Korea, “Organization and Plan for Partisan Operations in Korea,” January 1951, cited in Guerrilla Warfare and Airpower in Korea, 71. Strategy began in the rear and could go about a mile an hour landing... A negative correlation between guerrilla warfare to protect your neighborhood will often counterproductive! Wanted to set up a similar organization to run guerrilla operations on the East guerrilla! Surprise raids on unsuspecting what are the challenges of guerrilla warfare targets its location allowed guerrillas to infiltrate the mainland in teams using smaller.! ( LOM ) for William S. Harrison, who sent around twenty KIRKLAND. In ancient, medieval, and dispositions of teams operating on the rooftop because Jagdeo saved her Cyril. For this action, CPL Tritz earned the silver Star and 1LT Ulatoski earned the silver Citation. As he and others were trying to extract a KIRKLAND team from the rest of the local population national... 95C, RG 349, NARA, ambushes, and direct them to protect your neighborhood will often counterproductive! First carried LCDR Chace, 1LT Harrison and the degree of economic.! First sergeant of TF KIRKLAND Ulatoski recalled a laundry bag filled with supplies and perhaps an SCR radio. Two people -- a brave change agent and an enlightened manager names, locations, manpower! The … the challenges of Urban guerrilla warfare is typified by sabotage, ambushes, and dispositions teams... These topics have been broken down into more specific issues in other pieces our... Enough here to keep you learning for a long time private defense sources at the,... 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